Urology is a branch of medicine which specializes in the treatment of conditions and diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive system. Urologists diagnose and treat various conditions and disorders associated with the kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra and the male reproductive organs such as prostate, penis, and testes. They are dedicated to clinical excellence in urology care and patient education so patients can make informed decisions about their healthcare.
Urodynamic studies (UDS) test how well the bladder, sphincters, and urethra hold and release urine. These tests can show how well the bladder works and why there could be leaks or blockages.
There are many types of urodynamic tests. A health care provider may recommend one or more based on your symptoms, but they are typically performed together as one test.
These tests, which are explained on the following pages, are all UDSs:
Why Would I Need Urodynamics?
Urodynamics help find the cause of problems related to:
What is vasectomy?
Vasectomy is the procedure of choice for men who do not want to father any children (or any additional children). It is indicated for any fully informed man and can be carried out as an outpatient procedure. If the patient has previous scrotal surgery or has any other possible complicating factors (e.g. a needle phobia), the procedure can be carried out under a short general anaesthetic. The non-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) is an innovative approach to exposing the vas deferens tubes in the scrotum using two specialized surgical instruments. NSV, as compared to traditional incision technique, results in less bleeding and hematoma, less infection, and pain, and a shorter operative time.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections that can affect the bladder, the kidneys and the tubes connected to them.
Anyone can get them, but they’re particularly common in women. Some women experience them regularly (called recurrent UTIs), UTIs can be painful and uncomfortable.
Symptoms of UTIs
Infections of the bladder (cystitis) or urethra (tube that carries urine out of the body) are known as lower UTIs. These can cause:
Chronic pelvic pain is one of the most common medical problems among women. Twenty-five percent of women with CPP may spend 2-3 days in bed each month. More than half of the women with CPP must cut down on their daily activities 1 or more days a month and 90% have pain with intercourse (sex). Almost half of the women with CPP feel sad or depressed some of the time.
Despite all the pain CPP causes, doctors are often not able to find a reason or cure to help these women.
CPP is any pelvic pain that lasts for more than six months. Usually the problem, which originally caused the pain, has lessened or even gone away completely, but the pain continues.
Pudendal Peripheral Nerve Block
Pudendal nerve blocks are a minimally invasive, non-surgical treatment for chronic pain. These nerve blocks can help in the diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain conditions such as vaginal pain, penile pain, scrotal pain, or perineal pain. In addition, this pain management technique can also provide therapeutic relief by reducing pain signals originating from these nerves.
The pudendal nerve is prone to damage either by compression or stretch. Common scenarios where this may occur include trauma, prolonged/difficult/traumatic vaginal childbirth, or chronic straining during defecation caused by constipation. Pudendal nerve entrapment, also known as Alcock canal syndrome, is less rare and is associated with professional cycling or repetitive trauma on perineal area or wrong posture.
Systemic diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis can also damage the pudendal nerve.
How It Works
A pudendal nerve block is performed with neurophysiology guidance to increase the accuracy and safety of this procedure.
This procedure is safe. However, with any procedure, there are side effects, risks, and possibility of complications. The most common side effect is temporary pain at the injection site. Other less common risks include bleeding, infection, or injection into blood vessels or vital organs. Fortunately, serious side effects and complications are uncommon. Injections of anti-inflammatory steroid medications along with local anesthetic or local anesthetics alone can provide slow relief of nerve pain over three to four months. The bulk of nerve-pain patients respond to injections. Radio frequency ablation can be helpful as well.
Urinary symptoms of prostate cancer
Because of the proximity of the prostate gland in relation to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer may be accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms. Depending on the size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict the urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some prostate cancer signs related to urination include:
Other prostate cancer signs & symptoms
Prostate cancer may spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues or bones. If the cancer spreads to the spine, it may press on the spinal nerves. Other prostate cancer symptoms include:
Urinary and fecal incontinence (Incontinence)
|Dr. Francesco Cappellano|
|Consultant Urology & Neurourology, Urodynamics FEBU (Fellow of European Board of Urology)|
Book an appointment with Dr. Francesco our Urology specialist.