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What are the functions of the kidneys?

  • Make urine and purify blood
  • Produce red blood-cells and control your blood pressure
  • Balance the minerals and the chemicals in your body
  • Help maintain healthy bones
  • Produce hormones

What is kidney disease?

Kidney disease means that the kidneys are damaged and can’t filter blood like they should. This damage can cause waste to build up in the body. It also can cause other problems that can harm your health.

What are the main causes of chronic kidney disease?

High blood pressure and diabetes are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease around the world.

Can early kidney disease show any symptom?

Early kidney disease often has no sign or symptoms. A person can lose up to 90% of their kidney function before experiencing any sign, but it can be detected by simple urine and blood test.


10 Symptoms of Kidney disease that you must know:

  1. Changes in urinary function
    • Getting up at night a few times to urinate
    • Having difficulty to urinate
    • Urine is darker than usual,
    • Urine that is foamy or bubbly
    • Urine that contains blood
  2. Swelling in the body
    • Water retention and dimpling of the skin after being pressed for few seconds
  3. Severe fatigue and weakness
  4. Dizziness
  5. Unexplained back pain
  6. Skin breakouts and itching
  7. Ammonia breath or metallic taste in the mouth
  8. Nausea or vomiting
  9. Feeling cold most of the day
  10. Shortness of breath


  1. Keep regular control of your blood sugar level
  2. Monitor your blood pressure
  3. Eat healthy, reduce your salt intake and keep your weight in check
  4. Do not smoke and keep fit and active
  5. Do not unnecessarily take over-the -counter pills
  6. Get your kidney function checked if you have one or more of these “high risk” factors
  7. Diabetes
  8. Hypertension
  9. Obesity
  10. Family history of kidney disease

Nephrology is a specialty of medicine concerning kidneys’ physiology, kidney disease, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy.

Systemic conditions that affect the kidney (e.g. diabetes and hypertension) and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems (e.g. metabolic bone disease and hypertension) are also studied in nephrology.

A nephrologist is a doctor who specializes in kidney care and in treating diseases of the kidney. The term nephrologist comes from the Greek word “nephros” which means renal and “ologist” refers to someone who studies. Nephrologists are educated in internal medicine and undergo very hard training to specialize in treating kidney diseases and kidney transplant clinic.

Dr. Enrica Falbo
Dr. Enrica Falbo
Nephrologist Consultant

Book an appointment with Dr Enrica our Nephrologist specialist.

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